Copyright ©1991, 1992, 1995-97 Hewlett-Packard Corporation.
1.0 Introduction |
2.0 Latin Text and Display |
3.0 Latin Hand Written
4.0 Latin Decorative |
5.0 Latin Pictoral |
6.0 Summary of Variables
7.0 Calculated Variables |
8.0 PANOSE Submission Form
9.0 PANOSE Classification Sheet
3.0 Latin Hand Written
3.1 Family Kind
3-Latin Hand Written
Many fonts are clearly scripts and unrelated to any book face. On occasion, though, the distinction gets rather vague. A good rule of thumb is that if the cursive font is part a family that includes a book face, then it should be classified in the Latin Text group. If it is freestanding with no obvious related book face, then it falls into the Latin Hand Written group. This can be a bit difficult to determine, since a font house may only choose to provide the cursive from a larger family, so the classifier needs to think about the face being processed and not do it purely by rote.
3.2 Tool kind
5-Ball (Round Cap)
8-Felt Pen/Brush Tip
9-Wild Brush - Drips a lot
Kind of implement predominately used to create character forms. A flat nib is an inflexible rectangular nib, like a standard calligraphy pen nib, whose line width is dependent only on the angle of the edge of the nib with respect to the line. A pressure point is a flexible point, like those used to do copperplate lettering, which spreads when pressed down upon and forms a wider line. Engraved cursive lettering has many of the characteristics of pressure point, but it also has fine added lines that could only be made with a graver. Ball is the type of line produced by a ball point pen or similar round nib. It has a single line weight and convexly rounded stem caps. Brush means a rectangular brush. It looks superficially like a flat nib but has more fluid stroke endings and gentle swellings along strokes as a brush would make responding to pressure. Rough looks like the lettering was done with a rough edged nib or a nib that was too dry or on a rough surface. It is characterized by unpredictable starts and stops within the letter. Felt tip or brush tip looks somewhat like the Ball nib but has the characteristic swellings within the line of a more flexible instrument. Wild brush looks hastily or sloppily done with drips and splatters of ink in unpredictable places. The difference between this and a decorative lettering is often minimal and based on readability and whether there is a full family of letter forms (book, italic, bold, and bold italic).
Figure 15 - Hand Written Tool Kinds
2 - Flat Nib
3 - Pressure Point
4 - Engraved
5 - Ball
6 - Brush
7 - Rough
8 - Felt Tip / Brush Tip
9 - Wild Brush
11-Extra Black (Nord)
The Weight digit classifies the appearance of a fonts stroke thickness in relation to its height. This is expressed as a ratio taken from two measurements on the uppercase E glyph. See Section 2.
Two measurements are required for classification of the Weight digit.
CapH (Figure 2)is the cap height and is measured on the uppercase H, from the top-most Y-extent to the bottom-most Y-extent at the theoretical midline of the left vertical stroke. The midline is chosen to avoid serifs that extend the height or depth of the character shape. This is a vertical measurement even if the glyph is italic or oblique.
The width of the vertical stem, WStem(E) (Figure 5), is measured horizontally on the uppercase E at a point halfway between the upper two arms. This measurement is the width of the vertical stem, or back bone, of the character and is taken perpendicular to the stem. In the case of an oblique letter, the horizontal axis is shifted to be perpendicular to the stem. Note: For the purpose of serif designs, this measurement is applied to the large (400 point) uppercase I glyph.
Only one calculated variable (WeightRat) is used to determine the Weight digit for the PANOSE Typeface Matching System. The WeightRat variable is calculated by dividing the cap height by the width of the vertical stem.
WeightRat = CapH / WStem(E)
To determine the exact PANOSE Weight digit, round the WeightRat value to two decimal places and match it in the following table:
- 1-No fit
- 2-Very Light WeightRat > 35
- 3-Light 18 < WeightRat < 35
- 4-Thin 10 < WeightRat < 18
- 5-Book 7.5 < WeightRat < 10
- 6-Medium 5.5 < WeightRat < 7.5
- 7-Demi 4.5 < WeightRat < 5.5
- 8-Bold 3.5 < WeightRat < 4.5
- 9-Heavy 2.5 < WeightRat < 3.5
- 10-Black 2.0 < WeightRat < 2.5
- 11-Extra Black WeightRat < 2.0
The tolerances of the weight classification have been determined by testing a variety of fonts. While this has provided reasonable averages for the ranges of weights, these will not always directly correspond with a fonts external name. It is not uncommon to have a font that contains the word "Bold" in the name that actually classifies as 7-Demibold.
In addition, certain families that have a surplus of font weights may not progress smoothly through the differing classification options. It is, however, rare that two fonts within the same family will have two weights that exist in the same classification category. Notify Hewlett-Packard of any cases where this occurs.
Caution on measurements: When measuring a design with a highly rounded or bowed inside stem, be certain to calculate the correct theoretical edge for the location of the stem edge. Curved stems can alter the measurements for classification significantly enough to alter the resulting category.
This digit allows monospaced and proportional fonts to be distinguished.
3.5 Aspect Ratio
This is the ratio between the width and the height of the face measured using the Upper O(Figure 7)
The OWid(Figure 7) horizontal measurement reflects the general width of the uppercase O glyph. It is measured from the left-most extent of the left side of the stroke, to the right-most extent of the right side of the stroke.
OTall(Figure 7) depicts the height of the uppercase O glyph. It is a vertical measurement from the outside edge of the stroke at the top-most extent to the outside edge of the stroke at the bottom-most extent of the glyph. Skewed, italic, or oblique characters should not skew this measurement. It should remain strictly vertical.
ORat = OTall / OWid
- 1-No Fit
- 2-Very Condensed ORat > 2.1
- 3-Condensed 1.27 < ORat < 2.1
- 4-Normal 0.92 < ORat < 1.27
- 5-Expanded 0.90 < ORat < 0.92
- 6-Very Expanded ORat < 0.90
The Contrast digit describes the ratio between the thickest point on the letter O and the narrowest point on the letter O. This ratio is called the ConRat and involves two relatively straight forward measurements.
The glyph shape of the uppercase O is used to calculate the contrast digit because it is generally of higher contrast than the other characters of the alphabet. For instance, the thick segments of the uppercase O are wider than the thick segments of other letters of the alphabet. This emphasis on contrast with the rounded character shapes is used because it emphasizes the contrast of the character shape, thus giving greater separation of visual traits in classification. The ratio of narrow to wide is used for contrast because it defines the degree of variation in the letterform as it changes from thick to thin.
This measurement should not be confused with the sixth PANOSE digit, Stroke Variation. Stroke variation classifies the transition process between the thick and thin segments of the uppercase O, the relative values themselves.
The contrast digit is calculated using two measurements, WideO() and NarO. These two measurements are often quite simple to determine. With advanced or calligraphic character shapes determining the location where the stem is at its maximum or minimum width is often more challenging. For this reason, it is recommended that a large sample is used to calculate the Contrast digit.
WideO (Figure 7) variable is assigned by measuring the stem of the uppercase O glyph where it is thickest. Often this will be at the right or left-most extent of the letter-form, measured in a horizontal line.
Similar to WideO, NarO (Figure 7) is assigned by measuring the narrowest point of the uppercase O glyph, usually the top most extent of the letter-form and, in this case, is measured vertically.
If diagonal stress has been applied to the shape of the uppercase O glyph the points of highest contrast may not occur at the top and bottom or furthest left and right extent of the glyph. In this case, WideO and NarO are the positions on the glyph where the difference between the inside and outside radials has the maximum and minimum value respectively.
The rule for determining the radials for the purpose of this classification method is that they must cross the outer edge of the glyph perpendicular to a line that is tangent to the stroke. The radials can usually be determined by locating the character center and drawing a line straight out through the glyph. Yet, in some exaggerated letterforms, specifically flattened, rounded, or off-center glyph shapes, a center-based radial will not provide a measurement that is perpendicular to the stroke. In these complex character shapes, the WideO and NarO must be measured using the radial differences method mentioned in the previous paragraph.
ConRat = NarO / WideO
If the ConRat variable is greater than one, there is horizontal stress on the letter; Transpose the calculation and recalculate it (i.e., ConRat = WideO/NarO).
To determine the exact PANOSE digit for contrast, fit the contrast ratio (ConRat) into the following table:
- 1-No Fit
- 2-None 0.80 < ConRat
- 3-Very Low 0.65 < ConRat < 0.80
- 4-Low 0.48 < ConRat < 0.65
- 5-Medium Low 0.30 < ConRat < 0.48
- 6-Medium 0.20 < ConRat < 0.30
- 7-Medium High 0.15 < ConRat < 0.20
- 8-High 0.08 < ConRat < 0.15
- 9-Very High ConRat < 0.08
The topology classification is a two step process. First the cursive face is separated into Roman, Cursive, and Blackletter based on the letterforms and then the connections between the letters are classified. Roman means that the letterforms are still similar to upright faces, but have been slanted to from a cursive. These faces tend to look like hand printing. Cursive means that some characters, such as the lower a and g, have been modified to look more like hand written forms. These faces tend to look like flowing script handwriting. Blackletter implies that there have been major modifications to many of the letterforms. These faces tend to be very black and condensed and often feel angry or aggressive. Disconnected means that each letter is distinct and there is no connection from one to the next. Trailing means that the trailing serifs of the letters, usually along the baseline, have been extended so that they may overlap with the following character. Connected means that the letterforms have been constructed so that they connect to their neighbors explicitly.
Figure 16 - Hand Written Styles
Figure 17 - Connections
2-Upright / No Wrapping
3-Upright / Some Wrapping
4-Upright / More Wrapping
5-Upright / Extreme Wrapping
6-Oblique / No Wrapping
7-Oblique / Some Wrapping
8-Oblique / More Wrapping
9-Oblique / Extreme Wrapping
10-Exaggerated / No Wrapping
11-Exaggerated / Some Wrapping
12-Exaggerated / More Wrapping
13-Exaggerated / Extreme Wrapping
The form digit tries to measure the general look of the face. It combines two measures, the slope of the verticals and the wrap of the tails of connecting strokes, such as the curving stroke in the Upper D.
Figure 18 - Wrapping Measure
Figure 19 - Wrapping
The slant (Figure 2) is measured up the center of the Upper H left vertical stem, with respect to the Baseline.
The wrap is measured on the Upper D where the bowed stem meets the vertical stem.
- 0º < Slant < 5º Upright
- 5º < Slant < 15 Oblique
- 15º < Slant Exaggerated
- Curving D stem meets vertical stem No Wrapping
- Curving D stem passes vertical stem but does not curve more than 90º Some Wrapping
- Curving D stem passes vertical stem but curves less than 360º More Wrapping
- Curving D stem passes vertical stem but curves more than 360º Extreme Wrapping
2-None / No loops
3-None / Closed loops
4-None / Open loops
5-Sharp / No loops
6-Sharp / Closed loops
7-Sharp / Open loops
8-Tapered / No loops
9-Tapered / Closed loops
10-Tapered / Open loops
11-Round / No loops
12-Round / Closed loops
13-Round / Open loops
Finials combines the treatment of the ends of characters, like the foot at the right bottom of the upper a, with the treatment of the ascenders of the lower case characters. If there is no extra treatment of the stroke end, other than what the lettering nib would naturally do, that is a none. If has been chopped off abruptly, that is a sharp, if it has been tapered to a narrower width than the nib would naturally create, that is a tapered. If it has been made bulbous that is rounded. The classification of ascenders into no loops, open loops and closed loops is usually unambiguous.
Figure 20 - Finials
Figure 21 - Ascenders
The X-ascent digit measures the relative size of the lowercase characters.
Two measurements are used for calculating the X-height. The height of the uppercase glyph for the typeface has already been measured in the Serif Style digit by means of the CapH variable. The lowercase height is measured as described in XTall. Similarly, the uppercase is evaluated to determine how the glyph height is altered to account for diacritical marks.
XTall (Figure 13)is the measurement of the lowercase characters from the baseline vertically to the upper extent of the upper left stem of the lowercase x.
CapH(Figure 2) is the cap height and it is measured on the uppercase H, from the top-most Y-extent to the bottom-most Y-extent along the theoretical midline of the left vertical stroke. The midline is chosen to avoid serifs that extend the height or depth of the character shape. This is a vertical measurement regardless of whether the character is italic or oblique.
XRat = XTall / CapH
The XRat variable is used to determine the relative size of the lowercase. The table below is used to classify fonts based on the XRat.
- Very Low XRat < 0.40
- Low .0.4 < XRat < 0.50
- Medium 0.50 < XRat < 0.66
- High 0.66 < XRat < 0.75
- Very High 0.75 < XRat