Copyright ©1991, 1992, 1995-97 Hewlett-Packard Corporation.
1.0 Introduction |
2.0 Latin Text and Display |
3.0 Latin Hand Written
4.0 Latin Decorative |
5.0 Latin Pictoral |
6.0 Summary of Variables
7.0 Calculated Variables |
8.0 PANOSE Submission Form
9.0 PANOSE Classification Sheet
4.0 Latin Decorative
4.1 Family Kind
3-Latin Hand Written
Latin Decorative faces are those that are designed more for impact than readability. Usually Decoratives are used singly or in small groups, for special purposes. Small cap fonts are also included in this group because they have become unusual enough to be considered special purpose fonts.
5- Non-standard Aspect
10-Text and Background
The class is the general look and feel of the face. Faces should be classed with as low a digit as is reasonable. Derivative is Decoratives that are closely derived standard text forms. Non-standard Topology has unusual forms for entire letters but still uses standard stems. Non-standard Elements has usual forms but unusual treatments of parts of them, such as serifs or ascenders. Non-standard Aspect has the usual letter forms but unusual proportions such as very high or very low waists. Initials is for faces that only have majuscule characters, no minuscules. Often these characters are highly ornamented. Cartoon faces have the entire letter made up of a single picture that form the outline of the character. Picture Stem faces have each stem made up of a picture or pictures and the letters made from groups of these elements. Ornamented faces have additional flourishes and details added to the character. Text and Background faces have the characters displayed as the absence of pattern on a patterned background. In Collage faces the characters are made up of repeating nonstandard elements. In Montage faces the characters are made up of nonrepeating nonstandard elements.
Figure 22 - Decorative Classes
2 - Derivative
3 - Non-standard Topology
4 - Non-standard Elements
5 - Non-standard Aspect
6 - Initials
7 - Cartoon
8 - Picture Stems
9 - Ornamented
10 - Text and Background
11 - Collage
12 - Montage
The Weight digit classifies the appearance of a fonts stroke thickness in relation to its height. This is expressed as a ratio taken from two measurements on the uppercase E glyph.
Two measurements are required for classification of the Weight digit.
CapH (Figure 2) is the cap height and is measured on the uppercase H, from the top-most Y-extent to the bottom-most Y-extent at the theoretical midline of the left vertical stroke. The midline is chosen to avoid serifs that extend the height or depth of the character shape. This is a vertical measurement even if the glyph is italic or oblique.
The width of the vertical stem, WStem(E) (Figure 5), is measured horizontally on the uppercase E at a point halfway between the upper two arms. This measurement is the width of the vertical stem, or back bone, of the character and is taken perpendicular to the stem. In the case of an oblique letter, the horizontal axis is shifted to be perpendicular to the stem. Note: For the purpose of serif designs, this measurement is applied to the large (400 point) uppercase I glyph.
Only one calculated variable (WeightRat) is used to determine the Weight digit for the PANOSE Typeface Matching System. The WeightRat variable is calculated by dividing the cap height by the width of the vertical stem.
WeightRat = CapH / WStem(E)
To determine the exact PANOSE Weight digit, round the WeightRat value to two decimal places and match it in the following table:
- 1-No fit
- 2- Very Light WeightRat > 35
- 3-Light 18 < WeightRat < 35
- 4-Thin 10 < WeightRat < 18
- 5-Book 7.5 < WeightRat < 10
- 6-Medium 5.5 < WeightRat < 7.5
- 7-Demi 4.5 < WeightRat < 5.5
- 8-Bold 3.5 < WeightRat < 4.5
- 9-Heavy 2.5 < WeightRat < 3.5
- 10-Black 2.0 < WeightRat < 2.5
- 11-Extra Black WeightRat < 2.0
The tolerances of the weight classification have been determined by testing a variety of fonts. While this has provided reasonable averages for the ranges of weights, these will not always directly correspond with a fonts external name. It is not uncommon to have a font that contains the word Bold in the name that actually classifies as 7-Demibold.
In addition, certain families that have a surplus of font weights may not progress smoothly through the differing classification options. It is, however, rare that two fonts within the same family will have two weights that exist in the same classification category. Notify Hewlett-Packard of any cases where this occurs.
Caution on measurements: When measuring a design with a highly rounded or bowed inside stem, be certain to calculate the correct theoretical edge for the location of the stem edge. Curved stems can alter the measurements for classification significantly enough to alter the resulting category. Very ragged or highly ornamented stems can also throw this measure off. In such cases, try to pick an average width by looking at the face.
This is the ratio between the width and the height of the face.
OWid (Figure 7) horizontal measurement reflects the general width of the uppercase O glyph. It is measured from the left-most extent of the left side of the stroke, to the right-most extent of the right side of the stroke.
OTall (Figure 7) depicts the height of the uppercase O glyph. It is a vertical measurement from the outside edge of the stroke at the top-most extent to the outside edge of the stroke at the bottom-most extent of the glyph. Skewed, italic, or oblique characters should not skew this measurement. It should remain strictly vertical.
ORat = OTall / OWid
- 1-No fit
- 2-Super Condensed ORat > 2.6
- 3-Very Condensed 2.1 < ORat < 2.6
- 4-Condensed 1.27 < ORat < 2.1
- 5-Normal 0.92 < ORat < 1.27
- 6-Extended 0.90 < ORat < 0.92
- 7-Very Extended 0.85 < ORat < 0.90
- 8-Super Extended ORat < 0.85
The Contrast digit describes the ratio between the thickest point on the letter O and the narrowest point on the letter O. This ratio is called the ConRat and involves two relatively straight forward measurements.
The glyph shape of the uppercase O is used to calculate the contrast digit because it is generally of higher contrast than the other characters of the alphabet. For instance, the thick segments of the uppercase O are wider than the thick segments of other letters of the alphabet. This emphasis on contrast with the rounded character shapes is used because it emphasizes the contrast of the character shape, thus giving greater separation of visual traits in classification. The ratio of narrow to wide is used for contrast because it defines the degree of variation in the letterform as it changes from thick to thin.
This measurement should not be confused with the sixth PANOSE digit, Stroke Variation. Stroke variation classifies the transition process between the thick and thin segments of the uppercase O, the relative values themselves.
The contrast digit is calculated using two measurements, WideO and NarO(Figure 7). These two measurements are often quite simple to determine. With advanced or calligraphic character shapes determining the location where the stem is at its maximum or minimum width is often more challenging. For this reason, it is recommended that a large sample is used to calculate the Contrast digit.
WideO (Figure 7) variable is assigned by measuring the stem of the uppercase O glyph where it is thickest. Often this will be at the right or left-most extent of the letter-form, measured in a horizontal line.
Similar to WideO, NarO (Figure 7) is assigned by measuring the narrowest point of the uppercase O glyph, usually the top most extent of the letter-form and, in this case, is measured vertically.
If diagonal stress has been applied to the shape of the uppercase O glyph the points of highest contrast may not occur at the top and bottom or furthest left and right extent of the glyph. In this case, WideO and NarO are the positions on the glyph where the difference between the inside and outside radials has the maximum and minimum value respectively.
The rule for determining the radials for the purpose of this classification method is that they must cross the outer edge of the glyph perpendicular to a line that is tangent to the stroke. The radials can usually be determined by locating the character center and drawing a line straight out through the glyph. Yet, in some exaggerated letterforms, specifically flattened, rounded, or off-center glyph shapes, a center-based radial will not provide a measurement that is perpendicular to the stroke. In these complex character shapes, the WideO and NarO must be measured using the radial differences method mentioned in the previous paragraph.
ConRat = NarO / WideO
If the ConRat variable is greater than one, there is horizontal stress on the letter; Transpose the calculation and recalculate it (i.e., ConRat = WideO/NarO).
To determine the exact PANOSE digit for contrast, fit the contrast ratio (ConRat) into the following table:
- 1-No fit
- 2-None 0.80 < ConRat
- 3-Very Low 0.65 < ConRat < 0.80
- 4-Low 0.48 < ConRat < 0.65
- 5-Medium Low 0.30 < ConRat < 0.48
- 6-Medium 0.20 < ConRat < 0.30
- 7-Medium High 0.15 < ConRat < 0.20
- 8-High 0.08 < ConRat < 0.15
- 9-Very High ConRat < 0.08
Caution on measurements:. Very ragged or highly ornamented O stems can throw this measure off. In such cases, try to pick an average thick and thin width by looking at the face.
4.6 Serif Variant
5-Obtuse Square Cove
The most sophisticated digit in the PANOSE classification system is the Serif Style digit. This digit describes the appearance of the serifs used in a font design and groups them into one of fourteen general categories. See section 2.2 for the details. This section follows that except that there is the addition of 16-Script which is used when the serif doesnt fit any of the other categories. Because of the broad range of designs that have been created by typographers, a particular decorative face may not fit the strict section 2.2 definitions. The classifier must then use judgment and experience to decide on the serif of a face.
Figure 23 - Treatment Types
2-None - Standard Solid Fill
3-White / No Fill
7-Drawn / Distressed
This digit describes the treatment of the total letters. For the sake of this digit it is assumed that the character actually consists of two parts, the outline and the fill within the outline. None is the standard solid fill that is used in text fonts. White or No Fill means that just the outline of the character shows. Pattern fill indicates that all the letters are filled with the same repeating pattern. Complex fill indicates that different letters are filled with different repeating patterns. Shaped fill indicates that the fill patterns are recognizable forms from other contexts. Drawn or Distressed fill indicates that the fill of each letter is unique and individual.
Figure 24 - Treatment Examples
2 - Standard Solid Fill
3 - No Fill
4 - Patterned Fill
5 - Complex Fill
6 - Shaped Fill
7 - Drawn/Distressed Fill
Figure 25 - Lining Types
5-Engraved (Multiple Lines)
Lining refers to how the outlines of the characters are handled. None is just a simple line. Inline is a line that is shaded on the inside. Outline is shaded on the outside. Often in the outline case, the letter is indicated as white space on the background pattern. Engraved is used to indicate that the outlines have been multiplied (not necessarily the same number of times on all edges). Shadow indicates there is an offset copy of the outline to one side simulating a shadow. Relief has this offset copy attached and perspective rules applied to make the letter look three dimensional. Backdrop is for letters that look to be floating above a background.
Figure 26 - Lining Examples
2 - None
3 - Inline
4 - Outline
5 - Engraved
6 - Shadow
7 - Relief
8 - Backdrop
5-Deco (E,M,S) Waco midlines
10-Upper Case in Lower Case
12-Horseshoe E and A
This digit attempts to encapsulate unusual characteristics inherent in the topology of the font. Sometimes faces have more than one of these characteristics and the classifier must make a judgment call. Remember that the reason for PANOSE numbers is to make distinctions, so choose what seems to best characterize the unique features of the font. Standard is for fonts that have normal looking character topologies. Square means that the font has an exaggerated square or angular character. Multiple segments reflect fonts where the strokes have been broken into multiple pieces. Deco refers to Art Deco style faces where the midlines are very high or low. Often characters like the E, M, and S have changed their forms markedly in these faces. Uneven Weighting implies that different elements within the font have consistently different weights. For example vertical stems are consistently very heavy relative to horizontal stems. Diverse Arms mean that the arms on different characters are dissimilar. Diverse Forms means that characters that would be similar in a text face, such as the b, d, g, q, are dissimilar. Lombardic Forms have exaggerated, manipulated stems. Upper Case in Lower Case means that there are variant caps or small caps in the positions in the character map that would usually be occupied by lower case forms. Implied Topology means that there are pieces of the characters missing, such as ascending diagonals, which the readers eye must interpolate. Horseshoe E and A means that even the most angular letters, like the E and A, have been rounded. Cursive means that the letter forms follow cursive models. Blackletter means that the letter forms follow German fraktur models. Swash Variance means that there are multiple variant swash capitals.
Figure 27 - Topology
3 - Square
4 - Multiple Segments
5 - Deco
6 - Uneven Weighting
7 - Diverse Arms
8 - Diverse Forms
9 - Lombardic
10 - Upper Case in Lower Case
11 - Implied Topology
12 - Horseshoe A and E
13 - Cursive
14 - Blackletter
15 - Swash Variance
4.10 Range of Characters
4-No Lower Case
This digit quantifies the range of characters available in the decorative font. Extended Collection means that the full font range is available. Literals means that only the alphanumerics are available. No Lower Case means just that. Small Caps means that only small caps are available in the font, no upper or lower case.